Evaluation of transmit diversity in MIMO-radar direction finding

Nikolaus H. Lehmann, Eran Fishler, Alexander M. Haimovich, Rick S. Blum, Dmitry Chizhik, Leonardo J. Cimini, Reinaldo A. Valenzuela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

283 Scopus citations


It has been recently shown that multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems have the potential to dramatically improve the performance of communication systems over single antenna systems. Unlike beamforming, which presumes a high correlation between signals either transmitted or received by an array, the MIMO concept exploits the independence between signals at the array elements. In conventional radar, the target's radar cross section (RCS) fluctuations are regarded as a nuisance parameter that degrades radar performance. The novelty of MIMO radar is that it provides measures to overcome those degradations or even utilizes the RCS fluctuations for new applications. This paper explores how transmit diversity can improve the direction finding performance of a radar utilizing an antenna array at the receiver. To harness diversity, the transmit antennas have to be widely separated, while for direction finding, the receive antennas have to be closely spaced. The analysis is carried out by evaluating several Cramer-Rao bounds for bearing estimation and the mean square error of the maximum likelihood estimate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2215-2225
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Issue number5 II
StatePublished - May 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Array processing
  • Cramer-Rao bound (CRB)
  • Direction finding
  • Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-radar


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