Evolution of Characteristics of Vertical Electric Current and Magnetic Field in Active Regions of the Sun and Their Relation to Powerful Flares

A. B. Nechaeva, I. V. Zimovets, V. S. Zubik, I. N. Sharykin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Abstract: The study of evolution of magnetic field and electric currents in active regions of the Sun over a long-time interval is of interest for understanding the processes of energy accumulation and release in them, leading to various phenomena that affect space weather. In this study, based on the photospheric vector magnetograms of the helioseismic and magnetic imager instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the authors analyzed the evolution of a number of characteristics of the magnetic field and vertical electric current in three active regions, 11 158, 11 675, and 12 673, that produced M and X class flares, during the time from their origin in the eastern hemisphere, during passage through the solar disk, and until their disappearance near the western limb with a step of 2 h. The characteristics considered included: the power-law exponent of the probability density function of the absolute value of the vertical electric current density, the maximum absolute value of the vertical current density, the signed and unsigned total vertical currents and the unsigned total vertical and horizontal magnetic fluxes, the energy of the nonlinear force-free and potential magnetic fields, the free magnetic energy, and the number of islands with strong vertical current. Some regularities in the behavior of the characteristics considered are found, in particular, regarding the occurrence of solar flares. The correlation coefficients between pairs of these characteristics are calculated. Additionally, M. Aschwanden’s approach is shown to be promising for predicting the maximum X-ray class of a flare by calculating the energy of the potential magnetic field in active regions. The results can be used to predict powerful solar flares.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)150-171
Number of pages22
JournalGeomagnetism and Aeronomy
Volume64
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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