We report on three sequences of high-resolution white-light and magnetogram observations obtained in the summer of 1989. The duration of sub-arcsecond seeing was three to four hours on each day. Study of the white-light and magnetogram data yields the following results: (1) For all but one of the sunspots we have observed, both dark fibrils and bright grains in the inner part of the penumbra of sunspots move toward the umbra with a speed of about 0.5 km s-1. In the outer part of the penumbra, movement is away from the umbra. The one exception is a newly formed spot, which has inflow only in its penumbra. (2) Granular flows converge toward almost every pore, even before its formation. Pores are observed to form by the concentration of magnetic flux already existing in the photosphere. The pores (or small sunspots), in turn, then move and concentrate to form bigger sunspot. (3) We followed an emerging flux region (EFR) from 29 to 31 July, 1989 that was composed of a large number of bipoles with magnetic polarities mixed over a large area in the first day of its birth. As time went on, polarities sorted out: the leading polarity elements moved in one direction; the following, the opposite. During the process a large number of cancellations occurred, with some sub-flares and surges observed simultaneously. After about 24 hours, the positive and negative fluxes were essentially separated. (4) We find two kinds of photospheric dark alignments in the region of new flux emergence: (a) alignments connecting two poles of opposite magnetic polarity form the tops of rising flux tubes; (b) alignments corresponding to the magnetic flux of one polarity, which we call elongated pores.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science