Frames of reference in mobile augmented reality displays

Weimin Mou, Frank Biocca, Charles B. Owen, Arthur Tang, Fan Xiao, Lynette Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


In 3 experiments, the authors investigated spatial updating in augmented reality environments. Participants learned locations of virtual objects on the physical floor. They were turned to appropriate facing directions while blindfolded before making pointing judgments (e.g., "Imagine you are facing X. Point to Y"). Experiments manipulated the angular difference between the learning heading and the imagined heading and between the actual heading and the imagined heading. The effect of actual-imagined on pointing latency was observed for naïve users but not for users with brief training or instructions concerning the fact that objects can move with body movements. The results indicated that naïve users used an environment-stabilized reference frame to access information arrays, but with experience and instruction the nature of the representation changed from an environment stabilized to a body stabilized reference frame.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)238-244
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Applied
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology


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