Frequency-specific coactivation patterns in resting-state and their alterations in schizophrenia: An fMRI study

Hang Yang, Hong Zhang, Chun Meng, Afra Wohlschläger, Felix Brandl, Xin Di, Shuai Wang, Lin Tian, Bharat Biswal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The resting-state human brain is a dynamic system that shows frequency-dependent characteristics. Recent studies demonstrate that coactivation pattern (CAP) analysis can identify recurring brain states with similar coactivation configurations. However, it is unclear whether and how CAPs depend on the frequency bands. The current study investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics of CAPs in the four frequency sub-bands from slow-5 (0.01–0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027–0.073 Hz), slow-3 (0.073–0.198 Hz), to slow-2 (0.198–0.25 Hz), in addition to the typical low-frequency range (0.01–0.08 Hz). In the healthy subjects, six CAP states were obtained at each frequency band in line with our prior study. Similar spatial patterns with the typical range were observed in slow-5, 4, and 3, but not in slow-2. While the frequency increased, all CAP states displayed shorter persistence, which caused more between-state transitions. Specifically, from slow-5 to slow-4, the coactivation not only changed significantly in distributed cortical networks, but also increased in the basal ganglia as well as the amygdala. Schizophrenia patients showed significant alteration in the persistence of CAPs of slow-5. Using leave-one-pair-out, hold-out and resampling validations, the highest classification accuracy (84%) was achieved by slow-4 among different frequency bands. In conclusion, our findings provide novel information about spatial and temporal characteristics of CAP states at different frequency bands, which contributes to a better understanding of the frequency aspect of biomarkers for schizophrenia and other disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3792-3808
Number of pages17
JournalHuman Brain Mapping
Issue number12
StatePublished - Aug 15 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anatomy
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


  • coactivation patterns
  • dynamics
  • frequency-specific
  • schizophrenia


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