Gamma-Ray Emission from the Impulsive Phase of the 2017 September 6 X9.3 Flare

Alexandra L. Lysenko, Sergey A. Anfinogentov, Dmitry S. Svinkin, Dmitry D. Frederiks, Gregory D. Fleishman

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We report hard X-ray and gamma-ray observations of the impulsive phase of the SOL2017-09-06T11:55 X9.3 solar flare. We focus on a high-energy part of the spectrum, >100 keV, and perform time resolved spectral analysis for a portion of the impulsive phase, recorded by the Konus-Wind experiment, that displayed prominent gamma-ray emission. Given a variety of possible emission components contributing to the gamma-ray emission, we employ a Bayesian inference to build the most probable fitting model. The analysis confidently revealed contributions from nuclear deexcitation lines, electron-positron annihilation line at 511 keV, and a neutron capture line at 2.223 MeV along with two components of the bremsstrahlung continuum. The revealed time evolution of the spectral components is particularly interesting. The low-energy bremsstrahlung continuum shows a soft-hard-soft pattern typical for impulsive flares, while the high-energy one shows a persistent hardening at the course of the flare. The neutron capture line emission shows an unusually short time delay relative to the nuclear deexcitation line component, which implies that the production of neutrons was significantly reduced soon after the event onset. This in turn may imply a prominent softening of the accelerated proton spectrum at the course of the flare, similar to the observed softening of the low-energy component of the accelerated electrons responsible for the low-energy bremsstrahlung continuum. We discuss possible physical scenarios, which might result in the obtained relationships between these gamma-ray components.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number145
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Sun: X-rays, gamma rays
  • Sun: flares


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