Green Relay Assisted D2D Communications with Dual Batteries in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks for IoT

Xilong Liu, Nirwan Ansari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations


The Internet of Things (IoT) heralds a vision of future Internet where all physical things/devices are connected via a network to promote a heightened level of awareness about our world and dramatically improve our daily lives. Nonetheless, most wireless technologies in unlicensed band cannot provision ubiquitous and quality IoT services. In contrast, cellular networks support large-scale, quality of service guaranteed, and secured communications. However, tremendous proximal communications via local base stations (BSs) will lead to severe traffic congestion and huge energy consumption in conventional cellular networks. Device-to-device (D2D) communications can potentially offload traffic from and reduce energy consumption of BSs. In order to realize the vision of a truly global IoT, we propose a novel architecture, i.e., overlay-based green relay assisted D2D communications with dual batteries in heterogeneous cellular networks. By optimally allocating the network resource, our proposed resource allocation method provisions the IoT services and minimizes the overall energy consumption of the pico relay BSs. By balancing the residual green energy among the pico relay BSs, the green energy utilization has been maximized; this furthest saves the on-grid energy. Finally, we validate the performance of the proposed architecture through extensive simulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7954594
Pages (from-to)1707-1715
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


  • Device-to-device (D2D) communications
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • dual batteries
  • heterogeneous networks
  • resource allocation


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