Hard x-ray and microwave flux spectra of the 2 November 1991 solar flare

Chik Yin Lee, Haimin Wang

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3 Scopus citations


We analysed the hard X-ray and microwave flux spectra of the solar flare (BATSE No. 1791) on 2 November 1991, which started at 16:11:03 UT and ended at 16:56:10 UT. This flare is particularly interesting because of its deep cyclic intensity modulation. Data are available simultaneously from the 16-channel BATSE/LAD hard X-ray and 45-frequency OVRO microwave database. We quantitatively compare the time variations in profiles of the hard X-ray spectral photon index, the 50 keV X-ray flux, and microwave spectral indices (at both high and low frequency ends). As expected, the X-ray photon spectral index decreases as the hard X-ray flux increases. This pattern appears in all the sub-peaks. This is consistent with previous observations that hard X-ray emission hardens at the emission peak. However, the behaviour of the high-frequency microwave index is unexpected. We observe an anti-correlation between the high-frequency microwave index and the hard X-ray photon index during the course of the flare. Finally, we study the arrival time of microwave flux peaks as a function of frequency and find that the microwave peak at a higher frequency comes earlier than that at a lower frequency. A maximum delay of 72 s is found among the main peaks at different frequencies. Shorter delays are found for the other five sub-peaks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149-164
Number of pages16
JournalSolar Physics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2000

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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