High-capacity multiple regions of interest watermarking for medical images

Frank Y. Shih, Xin Zhong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Watermarking techniques have been widely used for copyright protection, broadcast monitoring, and data authentication in medical images to protect patient's private information against tampering by unauthorized persons. A region of interest (ROI) in a medical image contains valuable diagnostic information, and thus must be preserved to avoid medical misdiagnosis. Current state-of-the-art medical image watermarking techniques only allow single-ROI data preservation. Aiming for high embedding capacity and high image fidelity, we present a novel medical image watermarking scheme which allows multiple ROIs to be selected and kept lossless, whereas regions of non-interest (RONIs) are collated for watermark embedding. The watermark is compressed, and the embedding is conducted in frequency domain to avoid piracy. Experimental results show that the proposed technique has significantly achieved high-capacity and high-PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratio) as compared against eight existing similar techniques. In addition, our technique allows flexible adjustment on a variable that controls the tradeoff between image fidelity and embedding capacity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)648-659
Number of pages12
JournalInformation sciences
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Information Systems and Management
  • Artificial Intelligence


  • Copyright protection
  • Data hiding
  • Image watermarking
  • Region of interest


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