Human-Cyber-Physical System for Industry 5.0: A Review From a Human-Centric Perspective

Shanhe Lou, Zhongxu Hu, Yiran Zhang, Yixiong Feng, Meng Chu Zhou, Chen Lv

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Industry 5.0 heralds a new wave of the industrial revolution, placing a spotlight on human-centric intelligent manufacturing. At the core of Industry 5.0 lies the human-cyber-physical system (HCPS), a composite intelligent system where interactions among humans, cyberspace, and physical assets are orchestrated across diverse manufacturing levels and phases. Understanding the pivotal roles played by humans in these advanced systems is of paramount importance. Nonetheless, the exploration of HCPS within the context of Industry 5.0 remains in its infancy. This paper presents a holistic literature review of industrial HCPS from a human-centric perspective. A united architecture is employed to encompass the aspects of cognitive-to-technology integration and human-to-human interaction in HCPS, highlighting human-in-the-loop, human-on-the-loop, and human-in-the-society paradigms. The mechanisms of these paradigms and their effects on design, production, and service are investigated to expand the research landscape of intelligent manufacturing in Industry 5.0. Key enabling technologies that facilitate harmonious tri-space integration are introduced, and the future challenges of industrial HCPS are discussed. This work is expected to attract more open discussions and in-depth research on HCPS in the new industrial revolution era. <italic>Note to Practitioners</italic>&#x2014;This paper is motivated by the emergence of Industry 5.0 that integrates humans into cyber-physical systems to offset drawbacks on both sides. It presents an overview of HCPS-related works to identify the state-of-the-art and open problems in the Industry 5.0 era. The review of HCPS applications in the design, production, and service phases can benefit engineers in the intelligent manufacturing area. Key enabling technologies on human ability augmentation, human-robot interaction, digital twin, human-cyber-physical data fusion, crowdsourcing, and system modeling, are analyzed to attract researchers in broader research fields to join in the development of industrial HCPS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Industry 5.0
  • human-centric manufacturing
  • human-cyber-physical system
  • product lifecycle


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