The recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammatory insult is a hallmark of the innate immune response. Neutrophil recruitment is regulated by a multistep process that includes cell rolling, activation, adhesion, and transmigration through the endothelium commonly referred to as the leukocyte adhesion cascade. After selectin-mediated braking, neutrophils migrate along the activated vascular endothelium on which ligands, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), are expressed. Previous studies have shown that two cells that commonly home from blood vessel to tissue—T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells—use the integrin lymphocyte functional antigen-1 (LFA-1) to migrate against the direction of shear flow once adherent on ICAM-1 surfaces. Like T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, neutrophils express LFA-1, but they also express macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1), which binds to ICAM-1. Previous reports have shown that neutrophils will not migrate against the direction of flow on ICAM-1, but we hypothesized this was due to the influence of Mac-1. Here, we report that both the HL-60 neutrophil-like cell line and primary human neutrophils can migrate against the direction of fluid flow on ICAM-1 surfaces via LFA-1 if Mac-1 is blocked; otherwise, they migrate downstream. We demonstrate this both on ICAM-1 surfaces and on activated endothelium. In sum, both LFA-1 and Mac-1 binding ICAM-1 play a critical role in determining the direction of neutrophil migration along the endothelium, and their interaction may play an important role in controlling neutrophil trafficking during inflammation.
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