Identifying novel biomarkers with TMS-EEG – Methodological possibilities and challenges

Elisa Kallioniemi, Zafiris J. Daskalakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Biomarkers are essential for understanding the underlying pathologies in brain disorders and for developing effective treatments. Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is an emerging neurophysiological tool that can be used for biomarker development. This method can identify biomarkers associated with the function and dynamics of the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems and effective connectivity between brain areas. In this review, we outline the current state of the TMS-EEG biomarker field by summarizing the existing protocols and the possibilities and challenges associated with this methodology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number109631
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Methods
StatePublished - Jul 15 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience


  • Biomarker
  • Electroencephalography
  • Excitation
  • Inhibition
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation


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