Image forensics using generalised benford's law for accurate detection of unknown JPEG compression in watermarked images

Xi Zhao, Anthony TS Ho, Yun Q. Shi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

In the past few years, semi-fragile watermarking has become increasingly important as it can be used to verify the content of images and to localise the tampered areas, while tolerating some non-malicious manipulations. In the literature, the majority of semi-fragile algorithms have applied a predetermined threshold to tolerate errors caused by JPEGcompression. However, this predetermined threshold is typically fixed and cannot be easily adapted to different amounts of errors caused by unknown JPEGcompression at different quality factors (QFs) applied to the watermarked images. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between QF and threshold, and propose the use of generalised Benford's Law as an image forensics technique for semi-fragile watermarking, to accurately detect the unknown QF of the images. The results obtained show an overall average QF correct detection rate of approximately 99% when 5% of the pixels are subjected to image content tampering, as well as compression using different QFs (ranging from 95 to 65). Consequently, our proposed image forensics method can adaptively adjust the threshold for images based on the estimated QF, therefore, improving the accuracy rates in authenticating and localising the tampered regions for semi-fragile watermarking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDSP 2009:16th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing, Proceedings
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009
EventDSP 2009:16th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing - Santorini, Greece
Duration: Jul 5 2009Jul 7 2009

Publication series

NameDSP 2009: 16th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing, Proceedings

Other

OtherDSP 2009:16th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing
CountryGreece
CitySantorini
Period7/5/097/7/09

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Signal Processing

Keywords

  • DCT
  • Generalised benford's law
  • Image authentication
  • JPEG compression
  • Semi-fragile watermarking

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