Impact of a jet orifice on the hydrodynamics and the oil droplet size distribution

Cosan Daskiran, Xinzhi Xue, Fangda Cui, Joseph Katz, Michel C. Boufadel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Experiments were performed to understand the impact of the orifice on droplet size in the shear breakup region. Oil jet was released vertically from two orifice types: a pipe and a converging nozzle. The roll-up vortices were observed clearly near the edge of the jet with nozzle orifice while elongated oil ligaments in the jet direction were mostly observed near the edge of the jet with pipe orifice. The size of the droplets shed from the near field shear layer increased along the jet direction for both orifice types. At different distances from the orifice, the characteristic shed droplet size (d50) was up to 40% larger with pipe orifice. Multiphase, large-eddy simulations (LES) with two orifice types were conducted to interpret the droplet size distribution (DSD) observed in the experiments. A thicker boundary layer that was initially formed inside the pipe dominated the near field of the jet with the pipe. The turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (ε) was higher with pipe orifice and the peak values of ε were found closer to the jet centerline with the pipe where oil holdup is larger. The viscous shear stress with the nozzle was higher than that of the pipe orifice within the initial two diameters from the orifice and slightly lower or higher at the following distances studied. The Reynolds shear stress was significantly larger with the nozzle at different distances from the orifice. The tangential vorticity within one diameter from the orifice was also dramatically higher with the nozzle. The key parameter in the shed droplet size of a liquid jet in liquid was found to be the shear layer thickness at the orifice, similar to prior works of a liquid jet in gas. A thicker shear layer at the pipe orifice induced a larger droplet size. The increase in the instabilities and shear layer thickness in the jet direction increased the droplet size in the jet direction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103921
JournalInternational Journal of Multiphase Flow
StatePublished - Feb 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


  • Droplet size
  • Impact of orifice
  • Initial condition
  • Jet
  • Large eddy simulation
  • Shear breakup


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