In vivo evaluation of a bioactive scaffold for bone tissue engineering

T. Livingston, P. Ducheyne, J. Garino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

203 Scopus citations


Revision cases of total hip implants are complicated by the significant amount of bone loss. New materials and/or approaches are needed to provide stability to the site, stimulate bone formation, and ultimately lead to fully functional bone tissue. Porous bioactive glasses (prepared from 45S5 granules, 45% SiO2, 24.5% Na2O, 24.5% CaO, and 6% P2O5) have been developed as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and have been studied in vitro. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of tissue-engineered constructs utilizing these scaffolds in large, cortical bone defects in the rat simulating revision conditions. With implantation times of 2, 4, and 12 weeks the results were compared to those using the bioactive ceramic scaffold alone. Two tissue-engineered constructs were studied: osteoprogenitor cells that were either seeded onto the scaffold prior to implantation ("primary") or those that were culture expanded to form bonelike tissue on the scaffold prior to implantation ("hybrid"). Defects treated with the hybrid had the greatest amount of bone in the available pore space of the defect over all other groups at 2 weeks (p < 0.05). For both the primary and hybrid groups, woven and lamellar bone was present along the interface of the scaffold and the host cortex and within the porous space of the scaffold at 2 weeks. By 4 weeks, very uniform, lamellar bone was present throughout the scaffold for both tissue-engineered groups. The amount of bone significantly increased over time for all groups while the bioactive ceramic gradually resorbed by 40% at 12 weeks (p < 0.05). Structural properties of the treated long bones improved over time. Long bones treated with the hybrid had an early return in torsional stiffness by 2 weeks. Both tissue-engineered constructs achieved normal torsional strength and stiffness by 4 weeks as compared to the scaffold alone, which achieved this by 12 weeks. Porous, surface modified bioactive ceramic is a promising scaffold material for tissue-engineered bone repair.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


  • Bioactive ceramic
  • Bone marrow stromal cells
  • Osteoprogenitor cells
  • Resorption
  • Unicortical window defect


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