Indoor Localization Using Visible Light Via Fusion of Multiple Classifiers

Xiansheng Guo, Sihua Shao, Nirwan Ansari, Abdallah Khreishah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

101 Scopus citations


We propose a localization technique by fusing multiple classifiers based on received signal strengths (RSSs) of visible light in which different intensity-modulated sinusoidal signals emitted by LEDs are captured by photodiodes placed at various grid points. First, we obtain some approximate RSSs fingerprints by capturing the peaks of power spectral density of the received signals at each given grid point. Unlike the existing RSSs-based algorithms, several representative machine learning algorithms are adopted to train multiple classifiers based on these RSSs fingerprints. Then, two robust fusion localization algorithms, namely, grid-independent least square and grid-dependent least square (GD-LS), are proposed to combine the outputs of these classifiers. A singular value decomposition (SVD)-based LS (LS-SVD) method is proposed to mitigate the numerical stability problem when the prediction matrix is singular. Experiments conducted on an intensity-modulated direct detection system show that the probability of having mean square positioning error of less than 5 cm achieved by GD-LS is improved by 93.03% and 93.15%, respectively, as compared to those by the RSS ratio and RSS matching methods with the fast Fourier transform length of 2000.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8089342
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Indoor positioning
  • fusion localization
  • intensity modulated direct detection (IM/DD)
  • machine learning
  • received signal strengths (RSSs) fingerprints
  • visible light communications (VLC)


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