Industrial pollution discharges from the West African region

E. Joe Middlebrooks, P. M. Armenante, J. B. Carmichael

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Information on the type and quantity of industrial pollutants from major land-based sources entering the marine environment through direct coastal discharges or indirectly through rivers, as well as on the present status of industrial waste management (treatment and disposal) practices, are provided for the West African region. Most of the data utilized in this analysis were collected by six UNIDO experts who visited the eighteen countries of the West African region during the period of January through August 1980. Industrial operations were visited and information was collected from the various ministries involved with industrial development and environmental protection. Estimates of the mass of pollutants discharged to the ocean were based upon production rates used in conjunction with actual measurements made by the industries located in the countries visited; studies reported in the literature; and an extrapolation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Effluent Standards for various industrial sectors. The West African region was divided into five zones closely approximating the major currents of the Atlantic Ocean. The estimated pollution discharged by the industrial sector was calculated for each of the zones by adding the contribution from each country assigned to a zone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)177-191
Number of pages15
JournalEnvironment international
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1981
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Environmental Science


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