Ink Formulation and Selection for Biological Applications of Two-Photon Polymerization

Smita M. Panda, Hossein Goodarzi Hosseinabadi, Hoda Fattel, Umakanta Tripathy, Amir K. Miri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Two-photon polymerization (TPP) uses nonlinear light interactions in photo-cross-linkable precursors to create high-resolution (∼100 nm) structures and high dimensional fidelity. Using a near-infrared light source in TPP results in less scattering and a higher penetration depth, making it attractive for creating biological models and tissue scaffolds. Due to unmatched flexibility and spatial resolution, they range from microvascular constructs to microneedles and stents. This review reviews the working principles and current inks used for TPP-printed constructs. We discuss the advantages of TPP over conventional additive manufacturing methods for tissue engineering, vascularized models, and other biomedical applications. This review provides a short recipe for selecting inks and photoinitiators for a desired structure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1501-1512
Number of pages12
JournalACS Applied Optical Materials
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 22 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Spectroscopy
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


  • biophotonics
  • Microfabrication
  • resolution
  • tissue engineering
  • two-photon polymerization
  • vascularized modeling


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