Interhemispheric Observations of ULF Waves Caused by Foreshock Transients Under Quiet Solar Wind Conditions

Sung Jun Noh, Hyomin Kim, Dogacan Ozturk, Ilya Kuzichev, Zhonghua Xu, Hui Zhang, Andrew Vu, Terry Liu, James M. Weygand, Michael D. Hartinger, Xueling Shi, Mark Engebretson, Andrew Gerrard, Eun Hwa Kim, Marc Lessard, Christopher T. Russell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Foreshock transient (FT) events are frequently observed phenomena that are generated by discontinuities in the solar wind. These transient events are known to trigger global-scale magnetic field perturbations (e.g., ULF waves). We report a series of FT events observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in the upstream bow shock region under quiet solar wind conditions. During the event, ground magnetometers observed significant Pc1 wave activity as well as magnetic impulse events in both hemispheres. Ground Pc1 wave observations show ∼8 min time delay (with some time differences) from each FT event which is observed at the bow shock. We also find that the ground Pc1 waves are observed earlier in the northern hemisphere compared to the southern hemisphere. The observation time difference between the hemispheres implies that the source region of the wave is the off-equatorial region.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2023JA031596
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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