This paper presents a mathematical model to optimize zonal demand responsive transit (DRT) considering heterogeneous environment (i.e., community boundary, land use, demand distribution, line-haul travel time, etc.) under the advent of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). Since most previous models over-simplified conditions of the DRT service area, we propose a new modeling approach to formulate the operator and user costs. Passengers with varied expectations of vehicle arrival time at a drop-off location are considered. The average cost is minimized through optimizing service zone areas and associated headways subject to practical constraints (i.e., policy headway and vehicle capacity). A real-world region in the City of Calgary, Canada, is applied to demonstrate the applicability of the model. The impact of real-time vehicle arrival information to the optimal solution is assessed. The relationship between system parameters (i.e., line-haul travel time, demand density, vehicle capacity, and passenger composition, etc.) and the optimized solutions (i.e., zone area, headway, and costs) is explored through the sensitivity analysis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- System performance
- Travel time
- Zonal service