The input-output dispacemn: e;arts arranged in ser es o f equal d n join d in detail including the effects 0 un ina vest isate ' the two Cardan 1 s the phase angle between oint ansdeaiso such manufacturing tolerance errors as j intS an ngle link lengths and offset joint axes. jon-risht ined Newton-Raphson and Davidson-Fletcherno A coimization algorithm using dual-number coor-11 oP formation matrices was employed to perform p 0 we e-Trans dinat l:Y'sis h lt e ana experiment was conducted to validate t e resu s th p.n nalysis. The apparatus consisted of a doublehe a t driveline whose rotations were measured by t join 1 d b 0 dBn-haft encoders that were samp e Y a computer ca.;;1.ca.l ;1.sition system. The equipment was arranged so oPt21-Acq phase angle between the joints and the offset d:at thetween the shafts at each of the two joints t 81es readily varied. an\J].d be "relative phase angle", the difference between c0 Thee angle of the two joints and the angle between e phases defined by the input and intermediate and the the p1 8 iate and output shafts, was found to be the sigth 6 r 6 factor. If the offset angles at both Cardan ;1.n;1.cantre equal, the double-Cardan-joint driveline funcni1ntS a a constant-velocity coupling when the magnitude jO 0 s as ].ative phase angle is zero. If the offset angti0 the r:e two Cardan joints are unequal, a condition 0 at t g in the important front-wheel-drive automobile 1e5 v8 1l.incolumn, then fluctuation in output velocity for pr6 6 rin8 t input velocity is minimized although not st6 00st80d for zero relative phase angle.a c ;1.nate11 .