Kinetic and microhydrodynamic modeling of fenofibrate nanosuspension production in a wet stirred media mill

Gulenay Guner, Dogacan Yilmaz, Ecevit Bilgili

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


This study examined the impact of stirrer speed and bead material loading on fenofibrate particle breakage during wet stirred media milling (WSMM) via three kinetic models and a micro-hydrodynamic model. Evolution of median particle size was tracked via laser diffraction during WSMM operating at 3000–4000 rpm with 35–50% (v/v) concentration of polystyrene or zirconia beads. Additional experiments were performed at the center points of the above conditions, as well as outside the range of these conditions, in order to test the predictive capability of the models. First-order, nth-order, and warped-time kinetic models were fitted to the data. Main effects plots helped to visualize the influence of the milling variables on the breakage kinetics and microhydrodynamic parameters. A subset selection algorithm was used along with a multiple linear regression model (MLRM) to delineate how the breakage rate constant k was affected by the microhydrodynamic parameters. As a comparison, a purely empirical correlation for k was also developed in terms of the process/bead parameters. The nth-order model was found to be the best model to describe the temporal evolution; nearly second-order kinetics (n ≅ 2) was observed. When the process was oper-ated at a higher stirrer speed and/or higher loading with zirconia beads as opposed to polystyrene beads, the breakage occurred faster. A statistically significant (p-value ≤ 0.01) MLRM of three mi-crohydrodynamic parameters explained the variation in the breakage rate constant best (R2 ≥ 0.99). Not only do the models and the nth-order kinetic–microhydrodynamic correlation enable deeper process understanding toward developing a WSMM process with reduced cycle time, but they also provide good predictive capability, while outperforming the purely empirical correlation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1055
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmaceutical Science


  • Breakage kinetics
  • Microhydrodynamic model
  • Poorly water-soluble drugs
  • Process mod-eling
  • Statistical model
  • Subset selection
  • Wet stirred media milling


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