Large-scale deposition of transparent conducting oxides by hollow cathode sputtering

Alan Delahoy, Kai Jansen, Chris Robinson, Anthony Varvar, Paul Fabiano, Rajesh Kappera, Sheyu Guo, Hongmei Li, Shaohua Yang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


This paper reviews the status of hollow cathode sputtering as an evolving technology for production of thin-film transparent conducting oxides for PV applications. A large market segment for PV TCOs is represented by thin-film a-Si:H and tandem a-Si:H/nc-Si:H modules. For superstrate devices, textured SnO 2:F produced on-line by APCVD is currently the market leader, although alternative off-line methods and materials are now emerging. In particular, zinc oxide can be produced by LPCVD, APCVD, magnetron sputtering, and hollow cathode sputtering (HCS). HCS is a stable process featuring low-cost metal targets and a soft deposition process. We discuss the deposition principles and the film results obtained using linear hollow cathodes 0.5 m and 1.0 m in length. We report the direct deposition of highly textured doped ZnO having an electron mobility in excess of 50 cm 2/Vs. The production cost of textured ZnO is estimated for several competing techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvanced Materials Processing for Scalable Solar-Cell Manufacturing
Number of pages12
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012
Event2011 MRS Spring Meeting - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Apr 25 2011Apr 29 2011

Publication series

NameMaterials Research Society Symposium Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0272-9172


Other2011 MRS Spring Meeting
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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