Large-scale deposition of transparent conducting oxides by hollow cathode sputtering

Alan E. Delahoy, Kai Jansen, Chris Robinson, Anthony Varvar, Paul Fabiano, Rajesh Kappera, Sheyu Guo, Hongmei Li, Shaohua Yang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


This paper reviews the status of hollow cathode sputtering as an evolving technology for production of thin-film transparent conducting oxides for PV applications. A large market segment for PV TCOs is represented by thin-film a-Si:H and tandem a-Si:H/nc-Si:H modules. For superstrate devices, textured SnO 2:F produced on-line by APCVD is currently the market leader, although alternative off-line methods and materials are now emerging. In particular, zinc oxide can be produced by LPCVD, APCVD, magnetron sputtering, and hollow cathode sputtering (HCS). HCS is a stable process featuring low-cost metal targets and a soft deposition process. We discuss the deposition principles and the film results obtained using linear hollow cathodes 0.5 m and 1.0 m in length. We report the direct deposition of highly textured doped ZnO having an electron mobility in excess of 50 cm 2/Vs. The production cost of textured ZnO is estimated for several competing techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvanced Materials Processing for Scalable Solar-Cell Manufacturing
Number of pages12
StatePublished - 2012
Event2011 MRS Spring Meeting - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Apr 25 2011Apr 29 2011

Publication series

NameMaterials Research Society Symposium Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0272-9172


Other2011 MRS Spring Meeting
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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