Mark topography for alignment and registration in projection electron lithography

Reginald C. Farrow, Masis Mkrtchyan, Kevin Bolen, Myrtle Blakey, Chris Biddick, Linus Fetter, Harold Huggins, Regine Tarascon, Steven Berger

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


We have studied two mark geometries for possible use in a projection e-beam lithography system using SCALPEL (SCattering with Angular Limitation in Projection Electron Lithography). These are V-grooves and vertically etched geometries - pedestals or trenches. We report results of measurements of backscattered electron (BSE) contrast from topographic marks of varying size and as a function of energy up to 100 kV. The marks were fabricated on silicon wafers. The measurements were taken both in a scanning electron microscope and in an experimental SCALPEL machine operating in focused probe mode. The V-grooves ranged from 1.0 to 30 μm wide. The vertical etched features ranged from 2 to 30 μm wide and 0.6 and 50 μm depth. The results depended not only on the feature width and depth, but also on whether the features were isolated or in line and space patterns. Using a BSE ratio of 1.05 as a criterion for acceptable contrast from an alignment mark, V-grooves and vertical etched features had acceptable contrast with exception of the smallest and shallowest features for both geometries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-149
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes
EventElectron-Beam, X-Ray, EUV and Ion-Beam Submicrometer Lithographies for Manufacturing VI - Santa Clara, CA, United States
Duration: Mar 11 1996Mar 13 1996

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Alignment and registration
  • Alignment marks
  • Backscattered electrons
  • E-beam lithography
  • Mark detection
  • Projection electron lithography
  • Topographic marks
  • V-grooves


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