Materials and Cytokines in the Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Ka Kyung Kim, Aryan Mahajan, Kamiya Patel, Shareef Syed, Amanda M. Acevedo-Jake, Vivek A. Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Diabetes affects an increasing number of patients, and is associated with sustained and chronic inflammation. Complications arising from diabetes, including hypoxia, neuropathy, hyperglycemia, and ischemia that contribute to a delayed and reduced healing response result in chronic slow healing wounds. Here, key differences in native versus diabetic wound healing during each phase of healing are discussed, and the roles of cells and their secreted cytokines which regulate this process are outlined. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory mediator which plays a key role in modulating angiogenesis. Its importance in diabetic wound healing as well as recent work using MCP-1 and similar chemokines to reduce inflammation and improve healing are reviewed. The delayed healing response observed in diabetic patients often results in the formation of slow healing wounds, commonly presenting in the lower extremities as diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs); classification systems and current treatment options for DFUs, including debridement, off-loading, and amputation are outlined. Common dressing strategies are highlighted, and recent work developing biocompatible and bioactive hydrogels to address and hasten chronic wound healing is focused on.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2100075
JournalAdvanced Therapeutics
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Pharmacology (medical)


  • bioactive materials
  • cytokines
  • diabetic foot ulcers
  • hydrogels
  • monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
  • wound dressings


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