This paper analyzes the equilibria between immunoglobulins (R2), homo-bifunctional ligands (L2), monovalent ligands (I), and their complexes. We present a mathematical model that can be used to estimate the concentration of each species present in a mixture of R 2, L 2, and I, given the initial conditions defining the total concentration of R2, L2, I, and four dissociation constants (Kdinter, Kdintra, K dmono, and α). This model is based on fewer assumptions than previous models and can be used to describe exactly a broad range of experimental conditions. A series of curves illustrates the dependence of the equilibria upon the total concentrations of receptors and ligands, and the dissociation constants. We provide a set of guidelines for the design and analysis of experiments with a focus on estimating the binding constants from experimental binding isotherms. Two analytical equations relate the conditions for maximum aggregation in this system to the binding constants. This model is a tool to quantify the binding of immunoglobulins to antigens and a guide to understanding and predicting the experimental data of assays and techniques that employ immunoglobulins.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Binding isotherm
- Bivalent ligand