Maximum likelihood sequence decoding of digital image watermarking

George F. Elmasry, Yun-Qing Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper explores possible methods to detect the watermark signal. We show how using sequence detection techniques, such as maximum likelihood sequence detection (MLSD), can provide the same performance as conventionally used correlation detection while simplifying the detection process. As a result, we can increase the dimension of the watermark signal (achieving higher capacity), and keep the increase in computational complexity manageable. We will also show that with MLSD, we can have a measure of confidence level of the detected signal that is directly dependent on the watermark signal to noise ratio (SNRwm).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)425-436
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - Jan 25 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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