Agrochemicals represent a significant class of endocrine disrupting chemicals that humans and animals around the world are exposed to constantly. Agrochemicals can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals through a variety of mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that several mechanisms of action involve the ability of agrochemicals to mimic the interaction of endogenous hormones with nuclear receptors such as estrogen receptors, androgen receptors, peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and thyroid hormone receptors. Further, studies indicate that agrochemicals can exert toxicity through non-nuclear receptor-mediated mechanisms of action. Such non-genomic mechanisms of action include interference with peptide, steroid, or amino acid hormone response, synthesis and degradation as well as epigenetic changes (DNA methylation and histone modifications). This review summarizes the major mechanisms of action by which agrochemicals target the endocrine system.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Endocrine disruptor
- Non-genomic signaling
- Nuclear receptor