Deep neural networks (DNNs) based digital receivers can potentially operate in complex environments. How-ever, the dynamic nature of communication channels implies that in some scenarios, DNN-based receivers should be periodically retrained in order to track temporal variations in the channel conditions. To this aim, frequent transmissions of lengthy pilot sequences are generally required, at the cost of substantial overhead. In this work we propose a DNN-aided symbol detector, Meta-ViterbiNet, that tracks channel variations with reduced overhead by integrating three complementary techniques: 1) We leverage domain knowledge to implement a model-based/data-driven equalizer, ViterbiNet, that operates with a relatively small number of trainable parameters; 2) We tailor a meta-learning procedure to the symbol detection problem, optimizing the hyperparameters of the learning algorithm to facilitate rapid online adaptation; and 3) We enable online training with short-length pilot blocks and coded data blocks. Numerical results demonstrate that Meta-ViterbiNet operates accurately in rapidly-varying channels, outperforming the previous best approach, based on ViterbiNet or conventional recurrent neural networks without meta-learning, by a margin of up to 0.6dB in bit error rate in various challenging scenarios. Index terms - Viterbi algorithm, meta-learning.