Minimum entropy and histogram-pair based JPEG image reversible data hiding

Guorong Xuan, Xiaolong Li, Yun Qing Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


In this paper, based on the block entropy in the spatial domain obtained by summing the squares of all AC coefficients of each 8 × 8 block, a reversible data hiding (RDH) scheme for JPEG images is presented which selects the DCT blocks with minimum entropy for RDH. This scheme applies Parseval theorem and entropy principle to achieve the minimum entropy in the spatial domain. It embeds data into the DCT coefficients based on a histogram–pair RDH scheme using histogram shifting. Moreover, four thresholds including the embedding amplitude threshold, the fluctuation threshold, the lower frequency threshold and the higher frequency threshold, are utilized and adjusted to achieve optimized embedding performance. In particular, the proposed scheme does not embed data into zero-valued DCT coefficients, and can obtain optimal PSNR with relatively small file-size increase. Experimental results have demonstrated that, compared with the prior arts, the quality of proposed marked image is higher, and the file-size increase after RDH is less as well.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Information Security and Applications
StatePublished - Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Computer Networks and Communications


  • Block entropy
  • Discrete cosine transform (DCT)
  • File-size increase
  • JPEG images
  • Reversible data hiding (RDH)


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