mmWave Networking and Edge Computing for Scalable 360° Video Multi-User Virtual Reality

Sabyasachi Gupta, Jacob Chakareski, Petar Popovski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


We investigate a novel multi-user mobile Virtual Reality (VR) arcade system for streaming scalable 8K 360° video with low interactive latency, while providing high remote scene immersion fidelity and application reliability. This is achieved through the integration of embedded multi-layer 360° tiling, edge computing, and wireless multi-connectivity that comprises sub-6 GHz and mmWave (millimeter wave) links. The sub-6 GHz band is used for broadcast of the base layer of the entire 360° panorama to all users, while the directed mmWave links are used for high-rate transmission of VR-enhancement layers that are specific to the viewports of the individual users. The viewport-specific enhancements can comprise compressed and raw 360° tiles, decoded first at the edge server. We aim to maximize the smallest immersion fidelity for the delivered 360 content across all VR users, given rate, latency and computing constraints. We characterize analytically the rate-distortion trade-offs across the spatiotemporal 360° panorama and the computing power required to decompress 360° tiles. The proposed solution consists of geometric programming algorithms and an intermediate step of graph-theoretic VR user to mmWave access point assignment. The results reveal a significant improvement (8-10 dB) in delivered VR user immersion fidelity and spatial resolution (8K vs. 4K) compared to a state-of-the-art method based on sub-6 GHz transmission only. We also show that an increasing number of raw 360° tiles are sent, as the mmWave network link data rate or the edge server/user computing power increase. Finally, we demonstrate that in order to hypothetically deliver the same immersion fidelity, the reference method would incur a much higher (2.5-4.5x) system latency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-391
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


  • Multi-user virtual reality
  • edge computing
  • mmWave
  • resource allocation
  • scalable 360 ° video


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