Modeling and Control of Hybrid 3-D Gaits of Snake-Like Robots

Zhengcai Cao, Dong Zhang, Mengchu Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Snake-like robots move flexibly in complex environments due to their multiple degrees of freedom and various gaits. However, their existing 3-D models are not accurate enough, and most gaits are applicable to special environments only. This work investigates a 3-D model and designs hybrid 3-D gaits. In the proposed 3-D model, a robot is considered as a continuous beam system. Its normal reaction forces are computed based on the mechanics of materials. To improve the applicability of such robots to different terrains or tasks, this work designs hybrid 3-D gaits by mixing basic gaits in different parts of their bodies. Performances of hybrid gaits are analyzed based on extensive simulations. These gaits are compared with traditional gaits including lateral undulation, rectilinear, and sidewinding ones. Results of simulations and physical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performances of the proposed model and hybrid gaits of snake-like robots.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4603-4612
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Artificial Intelligence


  • 3-D model
  • hybrid 3-D gaits
  • snake-like robot


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