Techniques for modelling marine pollution have been studied for decades. Specialized modelling methods have been used to simulate pollutant dispersion resulting from offshore outfall. These include empirical and analytical methods, particle tracking method, finite difference and finite element solutions for solving the advection-diffusion equations, and jet integral methods. In the application of these methods, various models have been developed to address ocean discharge problems. This paper reviews modelling techniques associated with simulation of wastewater dispersion discharged from offshore outfalls based on type of method and the physical process of the ocean discharge, such as near-field and far-field modelling. The advantages and limitations of the major mathematical methods are analyzed, as well as their functionality and the availability of modelling software. The development of numerous modelling approaches and software, both commercial and academic, reflects the growing importance and interest in ocean environmental assessment. This review also discusses future trends for development in this field.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science(all)
- Offshore discharge