Models and methods for quantifying the benefits of engineered heat mitigation initiatives: A critical review

Ghiwa Assaf, Rayan H. Assaad

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is becoming one of the most studied phenomena in urban climate. Several efforts are devoted towards developing engineered UHI mitigation initiatives. However, there is a gap in the literature in presenting a comprehensive quantification of the benefits of several heat mitigation initiatives. Thus, this paper reviews and analyzes existing models and methods for quantifying the benefits of different engineered UHI mitigation initiatives using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) methodology. First, a total of 13 engineered UHI mitigation initiatives were identified. Second, the quantification of the benefits of the 13 initiatives were presented and analyzed. Third, the gaps identified in the literature were discussed to direct future research. The analysis showed that the existing research focused on quantifying the benefits of green roofs more than other UHI initiatives. Moreover, the review also showed that the climatic benefits are quantified more than other benefits. Thus, future research efforts are recommended to quantify the social, environmental, and economic benefits of the UHI initiatives as well as the different benefits of the less-studied UHI initiatives. The quantification methods and models presented in this paper serve as a guide for practitioners to quantitatively understand the benefits of several engineered UHI mitigation initiatives as well as to design better and enhanced heat mitigation strategies. Furthermore, the information present in this paper helps researchers in building models, algorithms, and simulation experiments to promote strategies and actions for lowering temperatures in urban communities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101654
JournalUrban Climate
StatePublished - Sep 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Urban Studies
  • Atmospheric Science


  • Cool pavement
  • Engineered heat mitigation solutions
  • Green roofs
  • Rain gardens
  • Urban heat island


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