We present a multi-instrument study of the two precursor brightenings prior to the M6.5 flare (SOL2015-06-22T18:23) in the NOAA Active Region 12371, with a focus on the temperature (T), electron number density (n), and emission measure (EM). The data used in this study were obtained from four instruments with a variety of wavelengths, i.e., the Solar Dynamics Observatory’s Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), in six extreme ultraviolet (EUV) passbands; the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) in microwave (MW); the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) in hard X-rays (HXR); and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) in soft X-rays (SXR). We compare the temporal variations of T, n, and EM derived from the different data sets. Here are the key results. (1) GOES SXR and AIA EUV have almost identical EM variations (1.5–3 × 1048 cm−3) and very similar T variations, from 8 to 15 million Kelvin (MK). (2) Listed from highest to lowest, EOVSA MW provides the highest temperature variations (15–60 MK), followed by RHESSI HXR (10–24 MK), then GOES SXR and AIA EUV (8–15 MK). (3) The EM variation from the RHESSI HXR measurements is always less than the values from AIA EUV and GOES SXR by at most 20 times. The number density variation from EOVSA MW is greater than the value from AIA EUV by at most 100 times. The results quantitatively describe the differences in the thermal parameters at the precursor phase, as measured by different instruments operating at different wavelength regimes and for different emission mechanisms.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science