Multifractal long-range dependence pattern of functional magnetic resonance imaging in the human brain at rest

Sihai Guan, Runzhou Jiang, Donna Y. Chen, Andrew Michael, Chun Meng, Bharat Biswal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Long-range dependence is a prevalent phenomenon in various biological systems that characterizes the long-memory effect of temporal f luctuations. While recent research suggests that functional magnetic resonance imaging signal has fractal property, it remains unknown about the multifractal long-range dependence pattern of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. The current study adopted the multifractal detrended f luctuation analysis on highly sampled resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans to investigate long-range dependence profile associated with the whole-brain voxels as specific functional networks. Our findings revealed the long-range dependence’s multifractal properties. Moreover, long-term persistent f luctuations are found for all stations with stronger persistency in whole-brain regions. Subsets with large f luctuations contribute more to the multifractal spectrum in the whole brain. Additionally, we found that the preprocessing with band-pass filtering provided significantly higher reliability for estimating long-range dependence. Our validation analysis confirmed that the optimal pipeline of long-range dependence analysis should include band-pass filtering and removal of daily temporal dependence. Furthermore, multifractal long-range dependence characteristics in healthy control and schizophrenia are different significantly. This work has provided an analytical pipeline for the multifractal long-range dependence in the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. The findings suggest differential long-memory effects in the intrinsic functional networks, which may offer a neural marker finding for understanding brain function and pathology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11594-11608
Number of pages15
JournalCerebral Cortex
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 15 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


  • DTD
  • healthy control
  • multifractal LRD
  • rs-fMRI
  • schizophrenia
  • test–retest reliability


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