Long-range dependence is a prevalent phenomenon in various biological systems that characterizes the long-memory effect of temporal f luctuations. While recent research suggests that functional magnetic resonance imaging signal has fractal property, it remains unknown about the multifractal long-range dependence pattern of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. The current study adopted the multifractal detrended f luctuation analysis on highly sampled resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans to investigate long-range dependence profile associated with the whole-brain voxels as specific functional networks. Our findings revealed the long-range dependence’s multifractal properties. Moreover, long-term persistent f luctuations are found for all stations with stronger persistency in whole-brain regions. Subsets with large f luctuations contribute more to the multifractal spectrum in the whole brain. Additionally, we found that the preprocessing with band-pass filtering provided significantly higher reliability for estimating long-range dependence. Our validation analysis confirmed that the optimal pipeline of long-range dependence analysis should include band-pass filtering and removal of daily temporal dependence. Furthermore, multifractal long-range dependence characteristics in healthy control and schizophrenia are different significantly. This work has provided an analytical pipeline for the multifractal long-range dependence in the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. The findings suggest differential long-memory effects in the intrinsic functional networks, which may offer a neural marker finding for understanding brain function and pathology.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cognitive Neuroscience
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- healthy control
- multifractal LRD
- test–retest reliability