Multiscale bioprinting of vascularized models

Amir K. Miri, Akbar Khalilpour, Berivan Cecen, Sushila Maharjan, Su Ryon Shin, Ali Khademhosseini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

180 Scopus citations


A basic prerequisite for the survival and function of three-dimensional (3D) engineered tissue constructs is the establishment of blood vessels. 3D bioprinting of vascular networks with hierarchical structures that resemble in vivo structures has allowed blood circulation within thick tissue constructs to accelerate vascularization and enhance tissue regeneration. Successful rapid vascularization of tissue constructs requires synergy between fabrication of perfusable channels and functional bioinks that induce angiogenesis and capillary formation within constructs. Combinations of 3D bioprinting techniques and four-dimensional (4D) printing concepts through patterning proangiogenic factors may offer novel solutions for implantation of thick constructs. In this review, we cover current bioprinting techniques for vascularized tissue constructs with vasculatures ranging from capillaries to large blood vessels and discuss how to implement these approaches for patterning proangiogenic factors to maintain long-term, stimuli-controlled formation of new capillaries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-216
Number of pages13
StatePublished - Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


  • Angiogenesis
  • Core/shell
  • Sacrificial bioink
  • Stereolithography
  • Tissue engineering


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