“Nano Reservoir” of Dual Energy Storage Mechanism for High-Performance Sodium Ion Capacitors

Chunyi Xu, Jiazhen Cai, Song Sun, Hongtao Sun, Xin Zhang, Gongkai Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Transitioning the cathodic energy storage mechanism from a single electric double layer capacitor to a battery and capacitor dual type not only boosts the energy density of sodium ion capacitors (SICs) but also merges performance gaps between the battery and capacitor, giving rise to a broad range of applications. In this work, Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP) is preconfigured in activated carbon (AC) as a “nano reservoir” of sodium ions and electrons to stimulate the synergy between the hybrid energy storage mechanisms, resulting in a more comprehensive electrochemical performance of the AC/NVP hybrid cathode than a pure AC or NVP cathode. The hybrid cathode of AC/NVP-90 exhibits superior specific capacities at low and high current densities over those of AC (133 vs 102 m Ah g-1@0.05 A g-1) and NVP (100 vs 35 m Ah g-1@16 A g-1). Meanwhile, the SICs composed of an AC/NVP hybrid cathode and a microsized bismuth (Bi) anode have a regulated energy/power density and cycle life metrics (∼218.6 Wh kg-1/∼22.7 kW/∼14,000 cycles), which could provide specific guidance of energy-power-life output dependency at a specific working and expense condition. Therefore, this work demonstrates feasibility for broad practical development of sodium ion energy storage devices with bespoke performances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalACS Applied Nano Materials
StateAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science


  • NaV(PO)
  • activated carbon
  • energy/power density
  • sodium ion capacitors
  • sodium ion storage mechanism


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