Nanoformulations-Insights Towards Characterization Techniques

Venkateshwaran Krishnaswami, Abimanyu Sugumaran, Venkatesan Perumal, Murugan Manavalan, Durga Prasad Kondeti, Shaik Kamil Basha, Mohammed Akmal Ahmed, Munish Kumar, Sivakumar Vijayaraghavalu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Drug-loaded novel nanoformulations are gaining importance due to their versatile properties compared to conventional pharmaceutical formulations. Nanomaterials, apart from their multifactorial benefits, have a wider scope in the prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of cancer. Understanding the chemistry of drug-loaded nano-formulations to elicit its behaviour both at molecular and systemic levels is critical in the present scenario. Drug-loaded nanoformulations are controlled by their size, shape, surface chemistry, and release behavior. The major pharmaceutical drug loaded nanocarriers reported for anticancer drug delivery for the treatment of various forms of cancers such as lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, etc include nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanodispersions, nanocapsules, nanomicelles, cubosomes, nanoemulsions, liposomes and niosomes. The major objectives in designing anticancer drug-loaded nanoformulations are to manage the particle size/morphology correlating with the drug release to fulfil the specific objec-tives. Hence, nano characterizations are very critical both at in vitro and in vivo levels. Objective: The main objective of this review paper is to summarise the major characterization techniques used for the characterization of drug-loaded nanoformulations. Even though information on characterization techniques of various nano-formulations is available in the literature, it is scattered. The proposed review will provide a comprehensive understanding of nanocharacterization tech-niques. Conclusion: To conclude, the proposed review will provide insights towards the different nano characterization techniques along with their recent updates, such as particle size, zeta potential, en-trapment efficiency, in vitro release studies (chromatographic HPLC, HPTLC, and LC-MS/MS analysis), EPR analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermal analysis, rheometric, morphological analysis etc. Additionally, the challenges encountered by the nano characterization techniques will also be discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1330-1344
Number of pages15
JournalCurrent Drug Targets
Issue number14
StatePublished - Oct 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry


  • EPR spectra
  • Nanocharacterization
  • nanomaterial
  • nanoparticles
  • raman spectra
  • zeta potential


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