Network Attack Prediction With Hybrid Temporal Convolutional Network and Bi-directional GRU

Jing Bi, Kangyuan Xu, Haitao Yuan, Jia Zhang, Meng Chu Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Precise and real-time prediction of future network attacks can not only prompt cloud infrastructures to fast respond and protect network security, but also prevents economic and business losses. In recent years, neural networks, e.g., Bi-directional Gated Recurrent Unit network and Temporal Convolutional Network (TCN), have been proven to be suitable for predicting time series data. Attention mechanisms are also widely used for the prediction of the time series of network attacks. This work proposes a hybrid deep learning prediction method that combines capabilities of Savitzky-Golay filter, TCN, Multi-head self attention, and Bi-directional Gated Recurrent Unit (STMB) for the prediction of network attacks. This work first adopts a Savitzky-Golay filter to smooth possible outliers and noise in network attack traffic data. It applies TCN to extract abstract features from one-dimensional time series to make full use of data. It then adopts multi-head self-attention to capture internal correlations among multi-dimensional features, by increasing weights of key features and reducing those weight of non-key features, making that SMTB captures important features adaptively. Finally, this work adopts Bi-directional Gated Recurrent Unit to extract bi-directional and long-term correlations in the time series to imporve the prediction accuracy. This work also utilizes a hybrid algorithm named genetic simulated-annealing-based particle swarm optimizer to determine the hyperparameter setting of STMB. Experimental results with real-life datasets show that STMB outperforms several commonly-used algorithms in terms of prediction accuracy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages1
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


  • Bidirectional control
  • Correlation
  • Feature extraction
  • Logic gates
  • Network attack prediction
  • Predictive models
  • Recurrent neural networks
  • Savitzky-Golay filter
  • Time series analysis
  • gated recurrent unit
  • multi-head self attention
  • temporal convolutional network


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