New highly efficient two-photon fluorescent dyes

Kevin D. Belfield, Alma R. Morales, Sheng Yao, Allyn Brice, Joel M. Hales, David J. Hagan, Eric W. Van Stryland

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Organic compounds that undergo strong nonlinear, multiphoton absorption have been gaining greater interest, mainly in the developing fields of multiphoton fluorescence imaging, optical data storage, 3-D microfabrication, and photodynamic therapy. Systematic studies have shown that conjugated organic molecules with large delocalized π electron systems show very large nonlinear optical effects. Two-photon absorbing chromophores have also been incorporated into dendrimers to increase two-photon absorptivity. A cooperative enhancement of two-photon absorption (2PA) has been observed, such as in the linkage of branched chromophores through a common amine group and chromophore-metal complexes. This enhancement may be related to extensive two-dimensional π-delocalization in these molecules. Herein, we describe the synthesis, structural characterization and photophysical study of a series of compounds (model, oligomer, and polymer) with symmetric molecular structure of the D-π-D motif and branched D-π-D dendrimeric structures based on substituted fluorene derivatives. Femtosecond 2PA cross sections were very large for some derivatives (over 10,000 GM) and often exhibited substantial solvent effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)173-180
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes
EventOrganic Photonic Materials and Devices VI - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 27 2004Jan 29 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Molecular symmetry
  • Nonlinear optical effects
  • Organic chromophores
  • Two-photon absorption


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