Non-Volatile Approximate Arithmetic Circuits Using Scalable Hybrid Spin-CMOS Majority Gates

Honglan Jiang, Shaahin Angizi, Deliang Fan, Jie Han, Leibo Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


In the nanoscale era, leakage/static power dissipation has become an inevitable and important issue for CMOS devices. To alleviate this issue, we propose to use spintronic devices with near-zero leakage power and non-volatility as key components in arithmetic circuits for error-resilient applications. To this end, spintronic threshold devices are first utilized to construct highly-scalable majority gates (MGs) based on spin-CMOS technology. These MGs are then used in the design of compressors for constructing multipliers and accumulators. For an MG-based compressor, the truth table of a conventional compressor is transformed to ensure that the outputs depend only on the number of input '1's. To synthesize and optimize the MG-based circuits, a heuristic majority-inverter graph (HMIG) is further proposed for the design of an accurate and two approximate non-volatile 4-2 compressors (denoted as MG-EC, MG-AC1 and MG-AC2). Due to the high scalability of the MGs, approximate compressors with a larger number of inputs can be devised using the same method. Compared to previous designs, the proposed 4-2 compressors show shorter critical path delays and lower energy consumption; MG-AC1 and MG-AC2 also achieve a higher accuracy than state-of-the-art approximate designs. For achieving a similar image quality in image compression, the multiplier implementations using MG-AC1 and MG-AC2 result in more significant reductions in delay and energy than those using other approximate designs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9345773
Pages (from-to)1217-1230
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Compressor
  • approximate computing
  • heuristic majority-inverter graph (HMIG)
  • low leakage power
  • non-volatility
  • spin-CMOS majority gate


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