TY - JOUR

T1 - Nonlinear force propagation during granular impact

AU - Clark, Abram H.

AU - Petersen, Alec J.

AU - Kondic, Lou

AU - Behringer, Robert P.

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 American Physical Society.

PY - 2015/4/10

Y1 - 2015/4/10

N2 - We experimentally study nonlinear force propagation into granular material during impact from an intruder, and we explain our observations in terms of the nonlinear grain-scale force relation. Using high-speed video and photoelastic particles, we determine the speed and spatial structure of the force response just after impact. We show that these quantities depend on a dimensionless parameter, M′=tcv0/d, where v0 is the intruder speed at impact, d is the particle diameter, and tc is the collision time for a pair of grains impacting at relative speed v0. The experiments access a large range of M′ by using particles of three different materials. When M′蠐1, force propagation is chainlike with a speed, vf, satisfying vf∞d/tc. For larger M′, the force response becomes spatially dense and the force propagation speed departs from vf∞d/tc, corresponding to collective stiffening of a strongly compressed packing of grains.

AB - We experimentally study nonlinear force propagation into granular material during impact from an intruder, and we explain our observations in terms of the nonlinear grain-scale force relation. Using high-speed video and photoelastic particles, we determine the speed and spatial structure of the force response just after impact. We show that these quantities depend on a dimensionless parameter, M′=tcv0/d, where v0 is the intruder speed at impact, d is the particle diameter, and tc is the collision time for a pair of grains impacting at relative speed v0. The experiments access a large range of M′ by using particles of three different materials. When M′蠐1, force propagation is chainlike with a speed, vf, satisfying vf∞d/tc. For larger M′, the force response becomes spatially dense and the force propagation speed departs from vf∞d/tc, corresponding to collective stiffening of a strongly compressed packing of grains.

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U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.144502

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.144502

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84929590772

VL - 114

JO - Physical Review Letters

JF - Physical Review Letters

SN - 0031-9007

IS - 14

M1 - 144502

ER -