Observations of Running Penumbral Waves Emerging in a Sunspot

T. G. Priya, Wenda Cao, Su Jiangtao, Chen Jie, Mao Xinjie, Deng Yuanyong, Erdélyi Robert

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We present results from the investigation of 5 minute umbral oscillations in a single-polarity sunspot of active region NOAA 12132. The spectra of TiO, Hα, and 304 are used for corresponding atmospheric heights from the photosphere to lower corona. Power spectrum analysis at the formation height of Hα - 0.6 to the Hα center resulted in the detection of 5 minute oscillation signals in intensity interpreted as running waves outside the umbral center, mostly with vertical magnetic field inclination >15°. A phase-speed filter is used to extract the running wave signals with speed v ph > 4 km s-1, from the time series of Hα - 0.4images, and found twenty-four 3 minute umbral oscillatory events in a duration of one hour. Interestingly, the initial emergence of the 3 minute umbral oscillatory events are noticed closer to or at umbral boundaries. These 3 minute umbral oscillatory events are observed for the first time as propagating from a fraction of preceding running penumbral waves (RPWs). These fractional wavefronts rapidly separate from RPWs and move toward the umbral center, wherein they expand radially outwards suggesting the beginning of a new umbral oscillatory event. We found that most of these umbral oscillatory events develop further into RPWs. We speculate that the waveguides of running waves are twisted in spiral structures and hence the wavefronts are first seen at high latitudes of umbral boundaries and later at lower latitudes of the umbral center.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number15
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Sun: chromosphere
  • magnetic fields
  • sunspots


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