On the Similarity of Austin Model and Kotake–Kanda Model and Implications for Tumbling Ball Mill Scale-Up

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The aim of this theoretical investigation is to seek any similarities between the Austin model and the Kotake–Kanda (KK) model for the specific breakage rate function in the population balance model (PBM) used for tumbling ball milling and assess feasibility of the KK model for scale-up. For both models, the limiting behavior for small particle size-to-ball size ratio and the extremum behavior for a given ball size are described by “power-law.” Motivated by this similarity, specific breakage rate data were generated using the Austin model parameters obtained from the lab-scale ball milling of coal and fitted by the KK model successfully. Then, using the Austin’s scale-up methodology, the specific breakage rate was scaled-up numerically for various mill diameter scale-up ratios and ball sizes of 30–49 mm and coal particle sizes of 0.0106–30 mm. PBM simulations suggest that the KK model predicts identical evolution of the particle size distribution to that by the Austin model prior to scale-up. Upon scale-up, the differences are relatively small. Hence, modification of the exponents in the Austin’s scale-up methodology is not warranted for scale-up with the KK model. Overall, this study has established the similarity of both models for simulation and scale-up.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)250-261
Number of pages12
JournalKONA Powder and Particle Journal
Issue number40
StatePublished - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


  • Austin model
  • Kotake model
  • ball milling
  • breakage
  • population balances
  • scale-up


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