We present experimental observations of the onset of flow for horizontally vibrated 3D granular systems. For accelerations Γ above Γ*, the top layers of granular material flow, leading to convection with motion both parallel and transverse to the shaking; the lower part of the layer moves with the shaker in solid body motion. With increasing Γ, more of the layer becomes liquefied. The initial bifurcation is backward, but a small amount of fluidization by gas flow lifts the hysteresis. A new convective mechanism, which we explore both experimentally and computationally, associated with horizontal shearing at the walls, is identified as the mechanism driving the transverse convective flow.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)