Optimal Energy Management and Storage Sizing for Electric Vehicles With Dual Storage

Alok Deshpande, Josh A. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Battery degradation reduces the performance and lifetime of electric vehicles (EVs). Using energy storage devices with different characteristics alongside the battery can minimize degradation while satisfying driving demands. However, this introduces the additional complexities of sizing multiple storage devices and controlling them in real time. In this brief, we first provide a computationally tractable method to manage power-sharing between dual energy storages using approximate linear programming (ALP), an approximation of infinite horizon dynamic programming (DP). We formulate a procedure to determine the optimal sizes of the two storages based on the solution to the energy management problem to account for the tradeoff between vehicle range, storage size, and weight. We validate our approaches on a numerical case study. Numerical results show that our controller shares power efficiently between the storages, and our sizing procedure provides a design with minimal cost.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)872-880
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Approximate dynamic programming (DP)
  • batteries
  • electric vehicles (EVs)
  • optimal control
  • supercapacitors


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