Optimal Load Scheduling of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles via Weight-Aggregation Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms

Qi Kang, Shu Wei Feng, Meng Chu Zhou, Ahmed Chiheb Ammari, Khaled Sedraoui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

150 Scopus citations


In order to protect the environment and slow down global warming trend, many governments and environmentalists are keen at promoting the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). As a result, more and more PHEVs have been put into use. However, load peak caused by their disordered charging can be detrimental to an entire power grid. Several methods have been proposed to establish ordered PHEV charging. While focusing on single-objective load scheduling, they fail to meet the real requirements that need one to conduct multiple objective optimization. This paper formulates a multi-objective load scheduling problem to minimize two competing objectives: 1) potential serious peak-to-valley difference and 2) economic loss. When we apply existing multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs), i.e., multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO), Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II, MOEA based on decomposition, and multi-objective differential evolutionary algorithm to solve it, because its high dimension and special conditions we find that they fail to reach the Pareto Front or converge into a relatively small area only. Therefore, we propose a weight aggregation (WA) strategy and implement a novel MOEA algorithm named WA-MOPSO by incorporating WA into MOPSO to solve the problem. Its effectiveness and efficiency to generate a Pareto front of this problem are verified and compared with those of the state-of-the-art approaches. Furthermore, WA is also combined with other MOEAs to solve the defined scheduling problem.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7918586
Pages (from-to)2557-2568
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


  • PHEV
  • PSO
  • load scheduling
  • multi-objective optimization
  • weight aggregation


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