Optimization of headway, vehicle size and route choice for minimum cost feeder service

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38 Scopus citations


Many people use public transportation systems to reach their destination, while others use personal vehicles. Poor transportation systems do not attract ridership. Therefore, the usage of passenger cars increases, and traffic and environmental conditions deteriorate. Efficient public transportation has been recognized as one of the potential ways of mitigating air pollution, reducing energy consumption, improving mobility and alleviating traffic congestion. The objective of this study is to optimize a bus feeder service that provides the shuttle service between a recreation center (e.g. Sandy Hook, NJ) and a major public transportation facility, subject to site-specific constraints such as vehicle schedules, bus availability, service capacity and budget. The decision variables include bus headway, vehicle size and route choice. The solution methodology integrating both analytical and numerical techniques is developed, which optimizes the decision variables. Finally, the proposed solution methodology is applied to a case study. Numerical results, including optimal solutions and sensitivity analyses, are presented while the level of coordination between the feeder service and a major transportation service is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)359-380
Number of pages22
JournalTransportation Planning and Technology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation


  • Bus
  • Coordination
  • Optimization
  • Planning
  • Public transportation
  • Transfer


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