Optimizing coordinated transfer with probabilistic vehicle arrivals and passengers' walking time

Mei Xiao, Steven Chien, Dawei Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Supporting efficient connections by synchronizing vehicle arrival time and passengers' walking time at a transfer hub may significantly improve service quality, stimulate demand, and increase productivity. However, vehicle travel times and walking times in urban settings often varies spatially and temporally due to a variety of factors. Nevertheless, the reservation of slack time and/or the justification of vehicle arrival time at the hub may substantially increase the success of transfer coordination. To this end, this paper develops a model that considers probabilistic vehicle arrivals and passengers walking speeds so that the slack time and the scheduled bus arrival time can be optimized by minimizing the total system cost. A case study is conducted in which the developed model is applied to optimize the coordination of multiple bus routes connecting at a transfer station in Xi'an, China. The relationship between decision variables and model parameters, including the mean and the standard deviation of walking time, is explored. It was found that the joint impact of probabilistic vehicle arrivals and passengers' walking time significantly affects the efficiency of coordinated transfer. The established methodology can essentially be applied to any distribution of bus arrival and passenger walking time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2306-2322
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Advanced Transportation
Issue number8
StatePublished - Dec 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Strategy and Management


  • arrival time
  • bus
  • cost
  • probability
  • slack time
  • transfer
  • walking time


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